Friday, May 21, 2010

June Assignments

All to be completed by Term 3 Week 1 first Science Lesson.
1. Worksheet 8: Contraceptives - Medical Report.
2. Health Science June Revision Paper.
3. Re-test for selected students in Term 3 Week 2.

12 years old speaks out on the issue of abortion

Thursday, May 20, 2010


causes the infections?

Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhea, a bacterium that grows and multiplies quickly in moist, warm areas of the body such as the cervix, urinary tract, mouth, or rectum. Having unprotected sex with a partner for whom a past sexual history is not known is the primary risk factor for Gonorrhea.Gonorrhea can be passed from an infected woman to her newborn infant during delivery. The infection also occurs in children, most commonly in young victims of sexual abuse.If the bacteria spread to the bloodstream, they can infect the joints, heart valves, or the brain. The most common consequence of gonorrhea, however, is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a potentially serious infection of the female pelvic organs.

How the transmission occurs?

About 75% of cases occur in people between the ages of 15 and 29. The highest incidence is among women aged 15–19 and men aged 20–24. Depressed socioeconomic areas typically have the highest incidence, particularly where illicit drug use and prostitution are common. Gonorrhea occurs more frequently in men who have sex with men than in heterosexual men.

What are the signs and symptoms?

Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear within 2 to 10 days after sexual contact with an infected partner. However, some people may be infected for several months without showing any indications of gonorrhea. The bacteria from gonorrhea are carried in semen and vaginal fluids, and can cause a discharge.

Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Women

Although most women with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms, women who do have signs and symptoms of gonorrhea will usually see them within 10 days of getting the sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Symptoms of gonorrhea in women may include:

  • Pain or burning sensation when passing urine
  • Vaginal discharge that is yellow or bloody
  • Bleeding between menstrual periods
  • Heavy bleeding with periods
  • Pain during sex.

Any genital symptoms, such as discharge, burning during urination, or pain during sex, should be a signal to stop having sex and to see a doctor right away. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection, even if there are no symptoms.

Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Men

Although many men with gonorrhea may not have any symptoms, some men will have signs and symptoms of gonorrhea that appear 2 to 5 days after infection. In some cases, symptoms can take as long as 30 days to appear.

Symptoms of gonorrhea in men can include:

  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • A white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis
  • Painful or swollen testicles.

Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in the Rectum

Men and women who have an anal infection might have signs and symptoms of gonorrhea that include:

  • Discharge
  • Soreness
  • Bleeding or itching of the anus
  • Painful bowel movements.

Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in the Throat and Eyes

Although gonorrheal infections in the throat may cause a sore throat, it usually does not cause any symptoms. Gonorrheal infections in the eyes may include:

  • Redness
  • Itching
  • Discharge from the eye.
What is the treatment?

Because a high proportion of men and women who have gonorrhea also have chlamydia, the goal of treatment is to cure both infections. Your partner(s) should be treated at the same time you are.

You will likely be offered an antibiotic, either in pill form or by injection. A single dose is usually all that is required, but some antibiotics require longer courses. For uncomplicated gonorrhea consists of antibiotics, including ceftriaxone, cefixime, ciprofloxacin, or ofloxacin for gonorrhea along with azithromycin, doxycycline, or erythromycin for chlamydia.

If you are pregnant and have gonorrhea, or if you are under the age of 18, it is important to tell your doctor. Certain antibiotics shouldn't be used by pregnant women or by people under 18.

It is important to take all of the medication that is prescribed to you, even if you aren't experiencing any symptoms. You must also abstain from sex until you have tested negative for the disease. If you have tested positive for gonorrhea, any and all sexual partners you have had should also be tested in order to prevent spreading the infection as well as to avoid future complications.

If left untreated, gonorrhea can cause many problems in both women and men. Untreated gonorrhea can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in women. PID has been shown to cause scarring on the reproductive organs, which can cause infertility, as well as increase a woman's risk of ectopic pregnancy, a potentially life threatening problem. Gonorrhea can also cause infertility in men if it the STD is not treated.

It is also possible for gonorrhea to spread to other parts of the body. It has been known to infect the heart valves and the brain as well as cause joint inflammation.

After you have finished your medications, wait three days before returning to your doctor to get tested. You should also get tested for HIV and Chlamydia, because many of those infected with gonorrhea are also susceptible to these diseases. If for any reason your symptoms do not clear up, return to your doctor for further advice.

How can this infection be prevented?

All sexually active persons should consider using latex condoms to prevent STDs and HIV infection, even if they are using another form of contraception. Latex condoms used consistently and correctly are an effective means for preventing disease (and pregnancy). Talk openly with your partner about STDs, HIV, and hepatitis B infection, and the use of contraception.


By Lhu Wen Kai, Imran, Ethan, Eugene, Soe Yan Naung@Norman



i. What causes the infections?

Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum, a spiral-shaped bacterium called a spirochete.

(to see the what this bacteria looks like, click here)


ii. How the transmission occurs?

Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. infected mothers with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying.


iii. What are the signs and symptoms?

Primary Stage

There will be an appearence of a chancre, but there may be multiple chancre. The time between infection with syphilis and the start of the first symptom can range from 10 to 90 days (average 21 days). The chancre is usually firm, round, small, and painless. It appears at the spot where syphilis entered the body. The chancre lasts 3 to 6 weeks, and it heals without treatment. However, if adequate treatment is not administered, the infection progresses to the secondary stage.

Secondary Stage

Skin rashes fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches, and fatigue. This stage typically starts with the development of a rash on one or more areas of the body. The rash usually does not cause itching.It may appear as rough, red, or reddish brown spots both on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. However, rashes with a different appearance may occur on other parts of the body, sometimes resembling rashes caused by other diseases.

Late and Latent Stages

The latent stage of syphilis begins when primary and secondary symptoms disappear. Without treatment, the infected person will continue to have syphilis even though there are no signs or symptoms; infection remains in the body. This latent stage can last for years. Signs and symptoms of the late stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating muscle movements, paralysis, numbness, gradual blindness, and dementia.


iv. What is the treatment?

A single intramuscular injection of penicillin, an antibiotic, will cure a person who has had syphilis for less than a year. Additional doses are needed to treat someone who has had syphilis for longer than a year. For people who are allergic to penicillin, other antibiotics are available to treat syphilis. There are no home remedies or over-the-counter drugs that will cure syphilis. Treatment will kill the syphilis bacterium and prevent further damage, but it will not repair damage already done.


v. How can this infection be prevented?

Abstain from sexual contact or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be infected.

Avoiding alcohol and drug use because these activities may lead to risky sexual behavior.

use condoms lubricated with spermicide.



Tuesday, May 18, 2010

STI research-Syphilis

What causes the infections?

Syphilis is almost always passed through sexual contact. It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during pregnancy.

Syphilis can sometimes be avoided through safer sex practices, such as using condoms and using "dental dams" during oral sex. Syphilis sores have to be covered up with a bandage to keep the infection from spreading.

Research done by: Ong Bing Jue

How the transmission occurs?

Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying. Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils.

Research done by: Ong Bing Jue

What are the signs and symptoms?

The signs and symptoms of syphilis may occur in four stages is primary, secondary, latent and tertiary.

Primary stage - The primary phase usually starts with a sore at the site of infection. The sore or lesion is called a chancre (pronounced shanker ). This sore usually appears as a craterlike lesion on the male or female genitals, although any part of the body is at risk. Anyone who touches an infected sore can transmit the infection. This initial lesion develops 3-4 weeks after infection and heals spontaneously after 1 week. Though the sore goes away, the disease does not. It progresses into the secondary phase.

Secondary stage - After the chancre develops, the secondary phase develops for about 4-10 weeks. Secondary syphilis is caused when a person has a direct contact with the mucous membranes.

Various other symptoms of secondary phase are Fever.

  • Muscle aches
  • Headache
  • Joint pain
  • Sore throat

Latent stage - In which no symptoms are present - may follow the secondary stage. Signs and symptoms may never return, or the disease may progress to the tertiary stage.

Late (tertiary) stage - This disease is not detected and treated in the early stages, various problems can arise such as blindness , heart disorders , mental disorders and many other associated with the nervous system and it will result in death.

Research done by: Ong Bing Jue

What is the treatment?

Syphilis can be cured with penicillin, which is an antibiotic. The penicillin is given as a shot. If you have had syphilis for 1 year or less, you only need to get 1 shot. If you have had syphilis longer than 1 year, you will need 2 or more shots. If you're allergic to penicillin, be sure to tell your doctor.

If you have an advanced case of syphilis, you may need stronger treatment. You may get shots of penicillin every day for 10 days. This can be done in the doctor's office or at a clinic. A few people have to go to the hospital to be treated with penicillin intravenously (through an IV).

If you're pregnant, it's very important to get treated right away. Syphilis can cause birth defects and even death in an unborn baby.

Done by:Ong Bing Jue

How can this infection be prevented?

The best ways to prevent Syphilis is :

  • The best way to prevent syphilis or any STD is to practice abstinence, or not having vaginal, oral, or anal sex.
  • Self care should be taken to prevent from syphilis.
  • Use a male or female condom.
  • Condoms should be bought and stored.
  • All pregnant women should receive at least one prenatal blood test for syphilis.
Done by:Ong Bing Jue

Everything also done by: Ong Bing Jue

Monday, May 17, 2010


What causes Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?

When a papillomavirus infects a human.

How can HPV be transmitted?

HPV is typically transmitted through sexual contact. It can be transmitted through all the same ways that any other STI can be transmitted. Through sexual activity, mixing of blood from an infected person.

What are the signs and symptoms?

Genital HPV usually has no symptoms, unless it is a type that causes genital warts. Genital warts may appear within weeks or months after contact with a partner who has HPV. More rarely, genital warts may show up years after exposure.

Most people will never know they have HPV because they have no symptoms and the body's immune system causes the virus to become inactive. In about 90% of cases, the body's immune system clears the HPV infection within 2 years. This is true of both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. A small number of people with HPV will have the virus for a longer time. These people can develop cell changes that over many years may lead to cervical or other genital or anal cancers.

What are the ways to treat it?

HPV has no known cure. The virus will usually be cleared from the body with the help of the body's immune system within 2 years. However, HPV can lead to other types of cancer. However, these types of cancer can be treated.

How can HPV be avoided?

The only way is to abstain from all sexual activity. It is usually not possible to know who infected persons are. However, HPV infections are so common that most ways of preventing other STIs do not guarantee that you won't get it. They will reduce the risk though.

Group 4- Christian, Jit Sheng, Jun Hao, Jun Peng and Tse Tzang