Wednesday, April 28, 2010


What is leukopenia?
It happens when there is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection. So then, what are the functions of the white blood cells?

What?(causes of Leukopenia)

-Leukopenia is caused by by overuse of neutrophils or reduction in the number of neutrophils or white blood cells known as (leukocytes). Other causes may be chemotherapy, radiation therapy, leukemia, myelofibrosis, aplastic anemia, influenza, Hodgkin's lymphoma, some types of cancer, malaria, tuberculosis and dengue. Sometimes, luekopenia is also caused due to Rickettsial infections, enlargement of the spleen, folate deficiencies, psittacosis and sepsis. Other causes are deficiency in certain minerals, such as copper and zinc.

What happens when there is a lack of white blood cells?

How?(does the component affected in the disease)

-The most common indicator of leukopenia is neutropenia. It is a sub-type of leukopenia. In neotropenia, there is a reduction in the number of neutrophils (the most abundant white blood cells). The neutrophil count is also the most common indicator of an infection risk. If leukopenia is mild, the person will hardly exhibit any symptom, only in severe cases the symptoms start showing up. The normal count of white blood cells in the body is between 4x109 and 1.1x1010 in one liter of blood. In leukopenia, this count is much lower. Diagnosis of leukopenia can be done by a complete blood count. Leukopenia weakens the immune system and puts a high risk of infections.

What?(function of the blood structure)

-White blood cells(WBCs) or leukocytes are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious diseases and foreign materials.Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

There are many types of white blood cell like:

How?(Comparism of Blood Structure differs from the others)

White blood cells are colorless without haemoglobin. It contains a nucleus and has an irregular shape. Though there are fewer white blood cells than red blood cells, they are much bigger in size. They can change their shape easily and this allows them to squeeze through walls of the blood vessels into the inter-cellular spaces.

How?(Effects of the Disease)

-septic shock
-unable to fight against bacteria

How?(is the technology used to facilitate the analysis so as to improve lifestyle)

-help people by reducing their pain
-prevents effects of the diseases as mentioned above
-cure them from illness

What?(treatments of this disease)
-steroids or vitamins to stimulate the bone marrow into producing more neutrophils.
-Cytonine therapy and chemotheraphy
-In more extreme cases, the patient will be prescribed with a cocktail of drugs suiting the situation.

Nutrients such as:
-Antioxidant vitamins
-Omega-3 fatty acids
-Shark liver oil
-Copper and zinc

  • Vitamin B12—2000 to 4000 mcg daily, orally or sublingually, in the form of methylcobalamin
  • Zinc—30 milligrams (mg) daily
  • Copper—2 to 3 mg daily
  • Selenium—200 micrograms (mcg) daily

For folic acid deficiency anemia:

For iron deficiency anemia:

  • Iron Protein Plus—300 mg of iron protein succinate, equivalent to 15 mg of elemental iron per capsule daily
  • Zinc—30 mg daily
  • Copper—2 to 3 mg daily
  • Selenium—200 mcg daily

To help maintain healthy blood (including healthy platelets and white blood cells):

  • Shark liver oil—500-1000mg [containing 20% alkylgycerols (100-200mg)] a day.
  • Vitamin C—2000 mg daily
  • Vitamin E—400 international units (IU) daily
  • Vitamin A—3000 IU daily
  • Zinc—30 to 60 mg daily
  • Copper—2 to 3 mg daily
  • Selenium—200 mcg daily
  • Folate and vitamin B12—800 mcg of folate and 300 mcg of vitamin B12 daily
  • Fish oil—Two 600-mg soft-gel capsules of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) twice daily (for a total of 2400 mg daily)
  • Melatonin—20 mg daily

google images

Proudly Done by GROUP 3(THE FIRST)
  • Ong Bing Jue(Point 5,4 and 3 improvement)
  • (Gather information and put them together)
  • Kristin Chai (Point 6 ONLY!!!!!)
  • Soe Yan Nauang @ NORMAN (Point 1 and 2)
  • Celine Chee (Point 3)
  • Eugene Liow (Photos)
  • Aaron Sng (Video)
©All rights reserved ® Trademark 2010

Blood Diseases

1. Spend some time to think of the following questions using Questioning Techniques after watching the video:

i. What is the cause of the disease?

ii. How does the component of blood/ blood vessel affected in the disease?

iii. What is the function of the blood component/ structure in circulatory system?

iv. How does this blood component/ structure differ from the rest in the circulatory system?

v. How will the absence of the blood component / structure affect the health of the patient?

vi. How technology is used to facilitate the analysis of one’s state of health and improve one’s lifestyle?

vii. How technology is used to save lives with respect to the disease investigated?

We will be discussing the following diseases in the next lesson (Friday): Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Coronary Heart Disease & Septicemia. You can do some research and read in advance to facilitate the discussion :) You can use the above questions to guide your research and readings.

Saturday, April 17, 2010


NOTE: Please bring your NIE Chemistry Pre & Post test on Tues (20th April)! Compulsory

JS: Need to change the blog layout for full view of videos.

Videos on Digestion

Digestive System/Alimentary canal

Enzymes in Digestion. Please watch before lesson

Educational Games on Digestion

Games For Digestion (Crossword, Word Search & Jigsaw)

Try playing & learn at the same time :)

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Food Tests!

Please view the videos before your practicals

Benedict's Test (Reducing sugar Test)

Biuret Test (Protein Test)

Alcohol Emulsion Test (Fats Test)

Wednesday, April 7, 2010

5 Kingdoms of Living Things

Please visit the website for more information on the 5 kingdoms of living things.

Note the unique characteristics of each kingdom

1. Kingdom Monera
2. Kingdom Protista
3. Kingdom Fungi
4. Kingdom Plantae
5. Kingdom Animalia


Intro on STEM CELLS!!!

Embryonic stem cells VS. Adult stem cells

Monday, April 5, 2010

green leaf cell

a. What are the organelles found in the cell?

-Cell wall
-cell membrane

b. List the structural features of the cell.

-A rigid cell wall that is made of complex carbohydrates and proteins. Cell walls have to be rigid to provide structural support, it also acts as a filtering mechanism.

-Unlike animals, plants do not have a skeletal system that provides support and anchorage to tissues.

-Therefore, the cell wall has to provide the structural stability and regular shape.

c. What are the functions of these organelles?

-Nucleus: It is enclosed in a double membrane. Within the nucleus is the DNA responsible for providing the cell with its unique characteristics. The DNA is similar in every cell of the body, but depending on the specific cell type, some genes may be turned on or off.

-Cytoplasm: This is where chemical reactions in the plant takes place

-Cell Membrane: Every cell is enclosed in a membrane The cell membrane acts as a protective barrier to the uncontrolled flow of water.
-Mitochondria: Mitochondria provide the energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products, contract - in short, they are the power centers of the cell. They are about the size of bacteria but may have different shapes depending on the cell type.

-Vacuole: A vacuole is a membrane-bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products Vacuoles tend to be large in plant cells and play several roles: storing nutrients and waste products, helping increase cell size during growth. Water collects in cell vacuoles, pressing outward against the cell wall and producing rigidity in the plant. Without sufficient water, turgor pressure drops and the plant wilts.
-Cell Wall (plant cells only): Plant cells have a rigid, protective cell wall The cell wall provides and maintains the shape of these cells and serves as a protective barrier. Fluid collects in the plant cell vacuole and pushes out against the cell wall. This turgor pressure is responsible for the crispness of fresh vegetables.
-Chloroplast (plant cells only): Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in all higher plant cells. These organelles contain the plant cell's chlorophyll responsible for the plant's green color.

D.Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?

-These functions are important as without these organelles, the plant cell cannot operate properly.

DNA Structure

DNA Extraction: Introduction

DNA Extraction Home Experiment

Saturday, April 3, 2010

Take NOTE!!!

1. Green plant cell group - Please post your research findings in the MAIN page instead of in the comments.

2. Human muscle cell group - Please structure your research presentation according to the questions (A, B, C & D).

3. Everyone needs to comment on the other 3 group research.

Mr. Low

Friday, April 2, 2010

Specialised Cells Research- RootHair Cell

Picture Source :

What are the organelles found in the cell?

They have a nucleus, vacuole, cytoplasm and cell wall.
List the structural features of the cell.

The root hair cell has a large surface area but is a delicate structure which can live up to 2 to 3 weeks. New root hair cells are formed at the top of the root to enable root hair coverage to be same. Root hair cells varies in length and diameter, from 5 - 17 micrometers in diameter and from 80 to 1500 micrometers in length. The root hair cells enable water to be absorbed by the plant through a thin root-like structure protruding out of the cell.

What are the functions of these organelles?
The nucleus contains chromatin material, consisting of the DNA of the cell which is important inherited by the daughter cells. The cell wall is a strong surface, surrounding the plasma membrane, which protects the cell and give Iit its shape. It also prevents too much expansion when water enters the cell. The plasma membrane controls the movement of substance into and out of the cell and is used for cell identification. The vacuole helps in isolating materials that pose as a threat to the cell and also helps in exporting waste products from the cell. The cytoplasm consists of cytosol and the cellular organelles, except the nucleus. The cytosol is made up of water, salts and organic molecules and many enzymes that speed up reactions. It is important as it suspends the cell organelles within it.
Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?
Even if one of the organelles is missing then the root-cell will not be able to function anymore.
Information gathered from: ; ; ;

Group :
Ng Kok Yin
Wee Renchang
Ethan Soh
Tan Jing Heng

Specialised Cells Research - Group 3, The Study of Human Muscle Cells

The Structure of the Human Muscle Cell

Obviously comes from the muscle of the human, and have a unique structure compared to other cells.

There are various types of organelles found in the cell. Each having various types of functions. This gives the cells a unique function for the human body.
Let's talk about the organelles now.
  • Each muscle cell is covered by a plasma membrane sheath which is called the sarcolemma.

  • What is a sarcolemma? The sarcolemma is the cell membrane of a muscle cell. It consists of a true cell membrane, called the plasma membrane.

  • Tunnel-like extensions from the sarcolemma pass through the muscle fibre from one side of it to the other in transverse sections through the diameter of the fibre. These tunnel-like extensions are known as transverse tubules.

  • The nuclei of muscle cells are located at the edges of the diameter of the fibre, adjacent to the sarcolemma. A single muscle cell may have many nuclei.
  • The cytoplasm in the muscle cell is called sarcoplasm.

  • There are many mitochondria present in the muscle cell

  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a network of membrane-enclosed tubules similar to smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Sarcoplasmic reticulum is present in muscle fibres/cells and extends throughout the sarcoplasm of the cell. The function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum is to store calcium ions, which are necessary for muscle contraction.

  • As we conclude, the different organelles are important for the cell to carry out life processes for the cell.

    Done by: Group 3

    Thursday, April 1, 2010

    Specialised Cells Research - Group 4 (Red Blood Cells)


    1. Students (in groups) to research on one of the following cells (e.g., root hair cell, green leaf cell, human muscle cell and human red blood cell).

    2. Each student is to reflect the Learning Points of the other cell type (e.g., red blood cell group to reflect on root hair cell group). Please input your Learning Points in the comments by tonight, 2359.

    Area of focus:

    a. What are the organelles found in the cell?

    b. List the structural features of the cell.

    c. What are the functions of these organelles?

    d. Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?

    a. What are the organelles found in the cell?

    -Plasma membrane

    -Network of supporting cytoskeleton

    b. List the structural features of the cell.

    -It is biconcave in shape(a dimple is present on both sides of the cell )

    increases surface area

    -The cytoplasm contains haemoglobin

    c. What are the functions of these organelles?
    -Hemoglobin --- carry oxygen and food while taking away wastes and carbon dioxide at the cell level.
    -Plasma membrane --- function as a barrier, yet they readily pass ions (some against a concentration gradient), nutrients, and information (signals) between the cytoplasm and the extracellular environment.
    -Network of supporting cytoskeleton --- Cell shape is maintained by the cytoskeleton

    d. Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?
    -All organelles work together to conduct life processes. So, if an organelle is absent, the cell cannot function well.

    Specialised Cells Research

    1. Students (in groups) to research on one of the following cells (e.g., root hair cell, green leaf cell, human muscle cell and human red blood cell).

    2. Each student is to reflect the Learning Points of the other cell type (e.g., red blood cell group to reflect on root hair cell group). Please input your Learning Points in the comments by tonight, 2359.

    Area of focus:

    a. What are the organelles found in the cell?

    b. List the structural features of the cell.

    c. What are the functions of these organelles?

    d. Why are these functions of the organelles important to the living cell?

    Microscope: Use and Care

    Usage of a Light Microscope

    Interactive Websites for Learning (Animal & Plant Cell)

    1. CELLS alive! represents 30 years of capturing film and computer-enhanced images of living cells andorganisms for education and medical research.

    CELLS alive! Interactive Animal and Plant Cell:

    2. is a web site for educational learning and having fun at the same time.

    Interactive Game on Cell Organelles:

    Mr. Low